All Purpose Flour: For every 1 cup of all purpose flour, you can substitute an equal amount of bread flour or a blend of ½ cup whole wheat flour and ½ cup bread flour.
Cake Flour: To make 1 cup of cake flour, measure 1 cup of all purpose flour. Remove 2 tablespoons and replace with 2 tablespoons of cornstarch. Stir together.
Self-Rising Flour: To make 1 cup of self-rising flour, substitute a combination of 1 cup of all purpose flour, 1 ½ tsp of baking powder and ¼ tsp of salt.
Baking Powder: For 1 teaspoon of baking powder, combine ¼ teaspoon baking soda with ½ teaspoon cream of tartar and ¼ teaspoon cornstarch.
Butter: Substitute an equal amount of lard or shortening.
Vegetable Oil: Substitute an equal amount of melted butter or other oil (such as olive oil or sunflower oil).
Heavy Cream: For 1 cup of heavy cream, substitute ¼ cup cooled melted butter and ¾ cup whole milk.
Buttermilk: For one cup of buttermilk, stir 1 tablespoon white vinegar or lemon juice into 1 cup milk.
Yogurt: Substitute an equal amount of sour cream or creme fraiche.
Brown Sugar: For every 1 cup of brown sugar, add 2 tablespoons of molasses or maple syrup to 1 cup of granulated sugar.
Confectioners' Sugar: To make 1 cup of confectioners' sugar, measure 1 cup of granulated sugar. Remove 1 teaspoon of sugar and replace with 1 teaspoon cornstarch. Pulse mixture in blender or food processor until finely ground.
Chocolate Chips: Substitute an equal amount of chopped chocolate bars, M&Ms, or other chocolate candies. Or, for a different flavor but similar texture, you can use chopped nuts or raisins in their place.